Today, organized crimes are increasing for several reasons. Organized groups use complex strategies to achieve their criminal goals and create public insecurity. Among these crimes are forced marriage or sales of women, and human trafficking for sexual oppression and exploitation. Sexual crimes are among the crimes that may be reduced and detected by entrapment. It seems that sexual offenses are not classified as crimes against individuals. However, if the victim is forced to have sexual relationship against her will, it is against public decency and can also be a crime against person as it has many physical and mental consequences for the victim. Having said that, reduction in pre-criminal situations which are crime facilitators and increasing the risk of detection and arrest are two main poles of situational prevention which aims at supporting the vulnerable groups (e.g. runaway girls and women).
Etiology of organized sexual crimes on the basis of criminology Organized crime has its own special features. Some criminologists believe there are certain types of crime as organized crimes. The word organization primarily implies the existence of more than two people. However, there are special conditions which make a group of criminals a gang. Without these conditions, the criminal activities of criminal groups are just dangerous case activities and not organized crimes. Organized crimes are criminal behaviors done according to the principles and methods of such networks to earn large sums of money. In other words, organized crime is “illegal and coordinated activities of a group of people for money and power using any necessary
1 /criminal tools”.
Today, because of dramatic changes in social, political, economic, legal, and cultural fields, some organizations have emerged which despite having structures like big and successful corporates, they are referred to as criminal organizations as they do criminal activities. Organizes crimes like sexual crimes have become so common as human traffickers gains considerable benefits by trafficking girls and women and sexually abusing them.
Organized crime is an illegal activity with economic incentives committed by a gang, association, or other organizations composed of two or more parts, whether formally or informally organized. In addition, the negative
consequences of the crime should be economically and socially significant. Criminal organizations try to act as common models in legal economic and even political organizations so that they can gain good position and opportunities. Today, sexual exploitation or sexual slavery exists as part of sexual industry under the title “human trafficking”. In the world of victims of human trafficking, violence, profanity, drugs, and fear of official brutality is part of the daily routine and is very normal. What is paid to them by traffickers is just a fraction of the profit they have made after deducting the cost of housing, food, clothing and, repayment of loans. Women and girls who are victims of trafficking are forced to have sex with a lot of people daily. On this basis, the rights violated in the process of human trafficking are very widespread because people who are in control of traffickers lose the control of their lives. Organized and cross-border crimes have caused serious concerns for international community. Gangs have unwritten laws for their members. Their criminal operations are based on systematic planning and arise in response to requirements of property or services on the underground market. Through violence and threat, these markets remain in the monopoly of criminal association and organization. In this respect, the secret organization is an organization providing illegitimate Service. Transnational crime is committed in more than one country. Or the crime is committed in one country but an important share of plotting, control, and design is done in other countries. Transnational crime may also be committed in a country but an organized criminal group which commits crimes in more than one country is involved in it. in addition, transnational crime also refers to a crime being committed in one country but with consequences in other countries. The phenomenon of globalization and the ease of cross-border transactions and communications have increased the spread of organized crimes for illegitimate benefits. According to the International Convention of battling with transnational organized crimes, organized crime groups are defined as follows: “organized group is a group consisting of three or more members lasting for a while with the aim of committing one or some pre planned crimes for gaining direct or indirect financial benefits. The important element is plotting”. Organized crimes are committed by groups with penetration in different financial and international sectors of country. Unlike other criminals, organized criminals are not poor and needy. They are organizations with implicit rules the benefits of which are sometimes several times as big as annual budget of some Countries, human trafficking is among organized crimes with diverse national and international consequences. For instance, rape can be done individually or in groups. In individual way, it is mostly for sensuality although there might be other incentives too. The victim is usually younger and she knows the rapist. Group rape is usually in the form of a gang with incentives other than sexual ones. It is mostly done to prepare the victim for prostitution. The criminal may also injure the victim to death.Unemployment, having plenty of leisure time, instability in the family,addictions, poverty, cultural poverty , erotic scenes, harsh conditions of marriage and the suppression of instincts, internal factors and diseases, exposure to violence, corrupt friends, and lack of proper nurturing of instincts are among the factors turning people into prostitution. Prostitution is a sexual relation out of marriage for pleasure or money. Sexual tourism is still not considered a transnational crime. Scientific advancement has caused different industries to be more successful.Sexual tourism is a kind of tourism the victims of which are those who sell
their bodies because of poverty and incompetence of governments. Sexual tourism leads to human trafficking. It is because traffickers use the opportunity and traffic humans to a sexually touristy area to earn financial benefits. Human trafficking takes place in two different ways. Sometimes, it is in the form of hidden transfer of the person to the target country. In this way, the candidate pays. For example, to be transferred from China to the U.S.A., the candidate should pay as much as $ 50000. But sometimes human trafficking is not so simple. In fact, in the second way, criminal gangs deceive the candidate with the promise of finding her a job I the target country and then
7 abuse her like a slave.
Etiology of organized sexual crimes based on individual-based approach Organized criminal activities refer to complex strategies criminal groups use to achieve their criminal goals of gaining money and power. Organized crimes are usually plotted in special centers using clever planning. The operational activities are hidden, precise, and professional. On the other hand, these crimes have many consequences for the society. Moral crimes such as human trafficking are very harmful. They have detrimental effects on culture, morals, economy, and safety of the country through the creation and development of the industry of pornography and the creation of centers of corruption and prostitution that impair social morality and physical and mental health of the country
8. Organized crimes can have physiological, or mental reasons. Physiologically, some people are absorbed by gangs as they do not have free will. On the other hand, people who are faced with preocious puberty are more prone to sexual behavior and their sexual arousal can become a crime or sexual perversion 7. Another approach that has been considered in explaining delinquency of individuals is psychological approach. According to this approach, the root of delinquency is in mental problems.
For instance, turning of women into sexual crimes is due to mental disorders such as mental retardation and the integration of their character. According to Freud, psychological factors such as anxiety, emotional instability, and negative emotions are risk factors for delinquency. Knopka came to the conclusion that “personal conflict rooted in weakness and mental deficiencies cause crime”. According to him self-esteem dramatically decreases in teen years. This decrease is more dramatic in girls. Discriminating behaviors can contribute to deviant behavior in girls and boys. Some believe psychological factors are the main cause of crime or disorder. The victims of organized gangs are usually women and children who are forced or deceived to do as the gang wants by being intimidated and threatened. Due to their inappropriate life conditions leading to their seclusion, they prefer to do as the gang wants to be supported by a group. Many of the people who eventually enter the sex trade market and get
involved in prostitution, pornographic photos, and other commercial sexual services are actually poor unemployed girls and women tempted and deceived by organized gangs with false promises of employment in jobs such as nurses, maids, working in factories, restaurants, shops and so on. Therefore, organized sexual crimes are mostly accused of a sexual act. However, there are some people who choose to be prostitutes and consider it as their profession.Etiology of organized sexual crimes based on community-based approach Delinquency is a social event existing in all human societies. population, urbanization, urban sprawl, economic development, and social changes are among the factors that affect delinquency fluctuations. The character of criminals and their cultural environment should also be considered in analysis. Because of globalization, crimes are transnational today. Today, delinquency is the result of social change as well, which in turn affect the development of delinquency. Transnational organized crime is a major concern today for criminal justice officials and governments. This kind of crime is a new challenge threatening international community as it has branches worldwide. Therefore, it is a new research area and is widely used in criminology. Organized crime is derived from “criminal participation”.
However, it demands more structured international organizations and more equipment to be able to make exploitations by human trafficking, prostitution, and other crimes. In some views, a mature woman who agrees with sexual immigration with free will is not trafficked. However, the definition of trafficking in women and children used by the International Organization for Migration, does not necessitates the existence of force or deception. According to this definition, any illegal transfer or exchange for economic or other personal interests is trafficking. In addition, some non-governmental organizations argue that trafficking should be defined in terms of force or lack of consent, especially in the sex industry. Unemployment, addiction to drugs and alcohol, lack of healthy leisure activities, and poverty are among factors contributing to committing sexual crimes by women. These factors contribute to the formation of sexual crime organizations. Now, most of these organizations resort to deceit and tricks to achieve their purposes. In examining damage and social deviations, as a social phenomenon, social causes of deviations should be considered as they prepare the ground for joining criminal gangs.
Description of organized sexual crimes based on victim ology
The term “victim ology” was scientifically introduced in the second half of the 20th among criminologists. In fact, victim ology was suggested by American B. Mendelson and German H. Vvonhenting. In 1973, Mandelson
investigated victim ology but it was F. Henting who investigated different aspects of victim ology in his book ” criminal and his victim”. Based on criminologist ideas, victim is ” someone who is physically, mentally, emotionally, or financially harmed and his social and civil rights are violated”. The role of victim in sexual crimes is obvious. This role is played by victim’s lifestyle, the language she uses when talking to criminals, her behavior, and her interactions. Mendelssohn refers to the idea of victim affecting criminal incidents. The idea was developed by Wolfgang, who said victim affects crime incident through her actions and reactions. The role of victim in crime incidents is very strong especially in cases involving violence and sexual assault. In organized crimes, offenders are looking for people who are not able to defend themselves. For example, a girl who asks for a free ride at night obviously seeks sexual relations. This girl should also be blamed for the criminal act as she has facilitated it. organized sexual crime gang is illegal and coordinated activities of a group of people for money and power using any necessary criminal tools. The target of organized sexual crimes Sociologists and criminologists of the North American consider a major role for “target”. If the target is well protected through proper methods, the risk of transition to criminal act decreases. The target who has once been victimized is very likely to be the target of another criminal act (re-victimization). The victim is highly vulnerable. Criminal and victim usually know each other. Crime is the result of closeness10. The term “victim” refers to a person who has experienced a definite damage to his physical integrity. The same variables that increase the chances of enjoying life benefits also increase the chances of violence and abuse. Normal daily activities refer to every social activity that can be done to satisfy the basic needs of life. due to their different activities, some people are more likely to be the target of criminal acts. Therefore, some situations are more appropriate for crime occurrence and some individuals are absorbed by crime gangs more easily due to their points of weakness. Schafer believes victim ology is the independent study of the relationship and interactions between victim and criminal, before and after the occurrence of crime. Functional responsibility in Schafer’s theory means individuals should prevent being victims of crimes through their selections. On this basis, Schaefer also considers the accelerator and influential role of victim in creating or committing crime important. In addition to accelerating role or influence of victim in the occurrence of crime, criminal’s obligation to compensate the victim is already considered to be part of it. accelater role of victim was continued in the studies of Wolfgang on sexual abuse. The key concept in these studies is the accelerating role of victim as a neutral concept which can contribute to the occurrence of crime.
The accelerator role of victim with regards to violence against women is crucial. The fact that the victims of such crimes cause the occurrence of the crime is in fact part of the patriarchal mentality that is rooted in many of these crimes. In some cases, the victim has a role in being abused. Like a person who has one been abused and then the next times agrees to be abused for joy or money. According to pattern of recidivism in criminal law, repeating the same crime is called specific recidivism and repeating dissimilar crime is called general recidivism. On the other hand, some individuals and groups are more vulnerable than others. Lifestyle of individuals plays a crucial role in their vulnerability as the lifestyle of some people is more dangerous than others. The more open the lifestyle, the more dangerous. The other factor is the decisions individuals make for their behavior. By selecting activities in dangerous time and locations, individuals increase the chance of being victims.
As a consequence, they turn to criminal groups and gangs to be supported. The main aim of such groups is direct or indirect gaining of financial benefits or sexual pleasure. The important element of organized criminal groups is plotting and planning. If the members of the band have all the same nationality and commit the crime in their own country, it is called internal organized crime (such as prostitution gangs or gangs of corruption homes). However, if the crime or its target go beyond the country, it is called transnational crime (such as human trafficking).
every day are abused. This is while those who run these gangs make them do drugs in order not to allow them think of leaving the group and reporting it. The money they earn is staggering. Conclusion
As a result of changing methods in different areas of crime detection, crime issues have changed in accordance with the changed conditions of today’s society. Among the issues which have recently emerged is the issue of organized crimes which should be detected using police tools. Unfortunately, with the advancement of science and technology, the technology of organized crimes has developed. Sexual crimes are not exceptional. Sexual criminals not only cause economic corruption, but also disturb public order and safety. Therefore, police organization and security police try to use efficient and scientific approaches to prevent crimes and pave the way for sustainable development and human security. The victims of organized sexual crimes are usually women, girls, and children who are sexually abused. The consequences are injury, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering for the women, and exclusion of mandatory or optional (in certain circumstances) freedom in public life or private life.
1. Azad, H. (1998), Psychopathology, Besat publishing, the first volume, Tehran
2. Ashoori, M. (1999), Code of Criminal Procedure, SAMT publisher, Volume II, First Edition, Tehran
3. Ansel, Mark, (1996 ), social defense, translator: Mohammed Ali Hussain Najafi Abrandabadi, third edition, published by Tehran
4. Abazari Fomeshi, M. (2008), expanded in terms of criminal terminology, Andishe Asr Publishing, first Edition, Tehran
5. Ardabili, Muhammad Ali, (2001), general criminal law, Mizan publisher, Second Edition, Tehran
6. Ashworth,Andrew(1991),principles of criminal law,oxford university press , 1991
7. Dworkin,Gerald(1999-2000),philosophy of law,Edited:fine bergandgole man,wads worth,6 the edition
8. Ashworth,Anderew(1991-1992),sentencing and criminal justice,weiden feld and Nicolsonth
9. Gardner,Tomas j.&Terry M.Anderson (2000), criminal law,7ed.,usa,wadsworth,p.160